The Mumbai Obstetric & Gynecological Society

The Mumbai Obstetric and Gynaecological Society mogs



Faculty of Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare of the RCOG: A website with indepth guidance on individual methods of contraception and the clinical evidence base behind the use and of contraceptives.

Population Information Online is maintained by the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health/Center for Communication Programs and is funded by the USAID. The website has links to a free family planning handbook and the evergreen Population Reports.

The website of the Family Planning Association of India offers insights into the work being done in our country by this organization which is the largest Indian NGO.


The frameless copper IUD (GyneFix) and the TCu380A IUD: results of an 8-year multicenter randomized comparative trial.

Contraception. 2009 Aug;80(2):133-41. Epub 2009 Mar 31.

Meirik O, Rowe PJ, Peregoudov A, Piaggio G, Petzold M; IUD Research Group at the UNDP/UNFPA/WHO/World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction.

UNDP/UNFPA/WHO/World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland.

BACKGROUND: Clinical performance of the frameless copper IUD (GyneFix), designed to reduce side effects related to the frame of conventional IUDs, and TCu380A was compared.

STUDY DESIGN: Randomized Multicenter randomized comparative trial. Parous women requesting and eligible to use IUD were admitted in 21 centers in eight countries in 1989-1993 and followed-up for up to 8 years.

RESULTS: Two thousand twenty-seven women were randomized to the frameless IUD and 2036 to TCu380A; 43 insertions of the frameless IUD failed and none for TCu380A. First-year expulsion rate of the frameless IUD was 5.3 (95% CI: 4.4-6.4) per 100 and 2.5 (95% CI: 1.9-3.3) for the TCu380A; second- through eighth-year expulsion rates were not different. First-year pregnancy rates for the frameless IUD and TCu380A were 1.3 (95% CI: 0.9-2.0) and 0.5 (95% CI: 0.3-0.9), respectively; second- through eighth-year cumulative pregnancy rates were 1.2 (95% CI: 0.7-1.9) and 2.5 (95% CI: 1.8-3.4), respectively. The 8-year cumulative rates of ectopic pregnancy and IUD removal for pain were lower for the frameless IUD than for TCu380A. Removals for other reasons were not different.

CONCLUSIONS: The frameless IUD had more insertion failures, expulsions and pregnancies in the first year than TCu380A, but fewer pregnancies from the second through the eighth year, and by 8 years had fewer ectopic pregnancies and removals for pain.

The effect of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device on menorrhagia in women taking anticoagulant medication after cardiac valve replacement.

Contraception. 2009 Aug;80(2):152-7. Epub 2009 Mar 31.

Kilic S, Yuksel B, Doganay M, Bardakci H, Akinsu F, Uzunlar O, Mollamahutoglu L.

Dr. Zekai Tahir Burak Women's Health Education and Research Hospital, Ankara 06420, Turkey.

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine devices (LNG-IUDs) on menorrhagia in patients receiving anticoagulant therapy after cardiac valve replacement.

STUDY DESIGN: Forty women with menorrhagia who underwent cardiac valve replacement and were taking anticoagulant medication were enrolled in the study. The women were randomly divided into two groups: LNG-IUDs were inserted into 20 women in Group 1 over the first 3 days of menstrual bleeding, while the women in Group 2 were followed without any intervention. The activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, international normalized ratio, hematocrit level, hemoglobin level, ferritin level and pictorial bleeding assessments for the quantity of menstrual bleeding were recorded.

RESULTS: Three months after insertion of LNG-IUDs, the women in Group 1 had a significant decrease in blood loss and higher hemoglobin, hematocrit and ferritin values. No difference was detected for these parameters in the control group at the third and sixth months of the study. Coagulation parameters did not differ between the two groups.

CONCLUSION: LNG-IUDs can be considered as an effective non-surgical treatment for menorrhagia in women receiving anticoagulant therapy after cardiac valve replacement.

The prognosis of pregnancy conceived despite the presence of an intrauterine device (IUD)

Kim SK, Romero R, Kusanovic JP, Erez O, Vaisbuch E, Mazaki-Tovi S, Gotsch F, Mittal P,Chaiworapongsa T, Pacora P, Oggé G, Gomez R, Yoon BH, Yeo L, Lamont RF, Hassan SS.

J Perinat Med. 2009 Aug 4. [Epub ahead of print]

Perinatology Research Branch, NICHD/NIH/DHHS, Bethesda, Maryland and Detroit, Michigan, USA.

Objective: Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are used for contraception worldwide; however, the management of pregnancies with an IUD poses a clinical challenge. The purpose of this study was to determine the outcome of pregnancy in patients with an IUD.

Study design: A retrospective cohort study (December 1997-June 2007) was conducted. The cohort consisted of 12,297 pregnancies, of which 196 had an IUD. Only singleton pregnancies were included. Logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for potential confounders between the groups.

Results: 1) Pregnancies with an IUD were associated with a higher rate of late miscarriage, preterm delivery, vaginal bleeding, clinical chorioamnionitis, and placental abruption than those without an IUD; 2) among patients with available histologic examination of the placenta, the rate of histologic chorioamnionitis and/or funisitis was higher in patients with an IUD than in those without an IUD (54.2% vs. 14.7%; P<0.001). Similarly, among patients who underwent an amniocentesis, the prevalence of microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) was also higher in pregnant women with an IUD than in those without an IUD (45.9% vs. 8.8%; P<0.001); and 3) intra-amniotic infection caused by Candida species was more frequently present in pregnancies with an IUD than in those without an IUD (31.1% vs. 6.3%; P<0.001).

Conclusion: Pregnant women with an IUD are at a very high risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. This finding can be attributed, at least in part, to the high prevalence of intra-amniotic infection and placental inflammatory lesions observed in pregnancies with an IUD.

EC4U: results from a pilot project integrating the copper IUC into emergency contraceptive care

Objective : The copper intrauterine contraceptive (IUC) is the most effective method of emergency contraception (EC), yet it is underutilized. The objective was to evaluate a pilot project integrating the copper IUC into EC care.

Study Design : Single-group evaluation study. Nine geographically diverse reproductive health centers implemented 6-month pilot interventions. All interventions included staff education and inclusion of the IUC in EC patient counseling; some sites developed patient education materials. Health center staff completed manual monthly tracking forms of the number of EC patients receiving oral levonorgestrel, ulipristal acetate or the copper IUC. Sites also tracked and reported the number of patients returning for removal during the 6-month pilot period and for 5 subsequent months. Main study outcomes included the number of IUC for EC insertions, the proportion that were same-day insertions and the proportion of patients receiving each EC type during the pilot period. A secondary outcome was the number of patients who had returned for removal at 5 months postpilot.

Results : There were 101 IUC insertions for EC during the pilot period. Seventy-seven percent were same-day insertions; the remainder returned for insertion within 5 days of unprotected intercourse. The percentage of EC patients choosing the IUC varied by site from 1 to 16% (overall=7%). At 5 months postpilot, 20 patients (20%) had returned for removal.

Conclusions : Some women will be interested in the copper IUC for EC, and therefore, all women should be offered this option. Results suggest that the large majority continued to use the IUC for ongoing contraception.

Implications : Copper IUCs are a viable option for women in need of EC. All women should be offered the most effective EC option.


Impact of obesity on the pharmacokinetics of levonorgestrel-based emergency contraception: single and double dosing


Objective : To determine if differences exist in the pharmacokinetics (PK) of levonorgestrel-based emergency contraception (LNG-EC) in obese and normal body mass index (BMI) users and test whether doubling the dose of LNG-EC in obese women increases total and free (active) LNG serum concentrations.

Study design : Healthy, reproductive-age women with obese and normal BMIs received 1.5 mg LNG orally (ECx1) and then in a subsequent menstrual cycle, the obese group also received 3 mg LNG (ECx2). Dosing occurred during the follicular phase. Total and free LNG PK parameters were obtained via serum samples through an indwelling catheter at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 2.5 h. The primary outcome was the difference in total and free LNG concentration maximum (Cmax) between ECx1 and ECx2 in the obese group.

Results : A total of 10 women enrolled and completed the study (normal BMI=5, median 22.8 kg/m2, range 20.8–23.7; obese BMI=5, 39.5 kg/m2, range 35.9–46.7). The total LNG Cmax for obese subjects following ECx1 (5.57±2.48 ng/mL) was significantly lower than the level observed in normal BMI women (10.30±2.47, p=.027). Notably, ECx2 increased the Cmax significantly (10.52±2.76, p=.002); approximating the level in normal BMI subjects receiving ECx1. Free LNG Cmax followed a similar pattern.

Conclusion : Obesity adversely impacts both the total and free Cmax levels of LNG EC and this likely explains its lack of efficacy in obese women. Doubling the dose appears to correct the obesity-related PK changes but additional research is needed to determine if this also improves EC effectiveness in obese women.

Implications : This study demonstrates that obesity interferes with the pharmacokinetics of LNG EC, and that doubling the dose may be an effective strategy to improve its efficacy in obese women.


Preference for and efficacy of oral levonorgestrel for emergency contraception with concomitant placement of a levonorgestrel IUD: a prospective cohort study

Objectives : We assessed intrauterine device (IUD) preference among women presenting for emergency contraception (EC) and the probability of pregnancy among concurrent oral levonorgestrel (LNG) plus LNG 52 mg IUD EC users.

Methods : We offered women presenting for EC at a single family planning clinic the CuT380A IUD (copper IUD) or oral LNG 1.5 mg plus the LNG 52 mg IUD. Two weeks after IUD insertion, participants reported the results of a self-administered home urine pregnancy test. The primary outcome, EC failure, was defined as pregnancies resulting from intercourse occurring within five days prior to IUD insertion.

Results : One hundred eighty-eight women enrolled and provided information regarding their current menstrual cycle and recent unprotected intercourse. Sixty-seven (36%) chose the copper IUD and 121 (64%) chose oral LNG plus the LNG IUD. The probability of pregnancy two weeks after oral LNG plus LNG IUD EC use was 0.9% (95% CI 0.0–5.1%). The only positive pregnancy test after treatment occurred in a woman who received oral LNG plus the LNG IUD and who had reported multiple episodes of unprotected intercourse including an episode more than 5 days prior to treatment.

Conclusions : Study participants seeking EC who desired an IUD preferentially chose oral LNG 1.5 mg with the LNG 52 mg IUD over the copper IUD. Neither group had EC treatment failures. Including the option of oral LNG 1.5 mg with concomitant insertion of the LNG 52 mg IUD in EC counseling may increase the number of EC users who opt to initiate highly effective reversible contraception.

Implications : Consideration should be given to LNG IUD insertion with concomitant use of oral LNG 1.5 mg for EC. Use of this combination may increase the number of women initiating highly effective contraception at the time of their EC visit.


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The Mumbai Obstetric & Gynecological Society

C-14, 1st Floor, Trade World, D-wing Entrance,
S. B. Marg, Kamala City, Lower Parel (W), Mumbai 400013.

Tel. : 022-24955324 / 32961841 • email:

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